Absolutely essential words






504 absolutely essential words



Lesson One

Abandon: desert; leave without planning to come back; quit; leave behind; reject; renounce; and give up
Anecdote: short narrative describing an interesting or amusing incident; tale; narrative; urban myth
Bachelor: unmarried man; graduate who holds a bachelor's degree
Bear: give birth; something difficult to do or deal with; endure; carry; support; suffer; produce
Blade: edge (of a knife); cutting portion of a razor; thin leaf; paddle; bat; racquet; propeller
Break in: enter forcibly; interrupt a person while he is speaking; an illegal forced entry in order to steal something
Breeding: courtesy; education; upbringing; rearing; cultivation; producing offspring
Cloak: loose sleeveless outer garment that fastens at the neck and hangs down the back; mask; disguise; cover
Contest: fight for; appeal; challenge; competition
Cot: a small bed with high barred sides for a baby or very young child; light portable bed; a camp bed
Data: information; facts; facts and statistics used for reference or analysis; the quantities
Detective: investigative; one who searches for information and evidence relevant to specific occurrences
Flirting: coquetry; affectionate and playful conduct meant to arouse sexual interest; brief romance
Gallant: brave; showing respect for women; chivalrous; gentlemanly
Generous:freely giving more of something than is necessary or expected; giving; unselfish; abundant; plentiful
Gesture: express an idea or emotion through bodily movements; motion of to emphasize or help to express a thought
Hardship: something that is hard to bear; difficulty; suffering; trouble; severe suffering or privation; misfortune; bad luck
Jealous: afraid that the one you love might prefer someone else; wanting what someone else has
Keen: sharp; intense; eager; clever; perceptive; astute; strong; enthusiastic; wonderful; amazing
Knight: medieval warrior; man who holds an honorary nonhereditary rank; chess piece shaped like a horse's head
Lot: divide; allocate; section of land; film studio; large amount; a great deal
Muddy: covered in mud; cloudy; hazy; vague; cover in mud; make impure; confuse the issue; make unclear
Oath: a promise that something is true; words of a solemn promise; a curse
Peg: fasten with clothespin; strengthen with a wedge; reinforce with a spike
Puddle: small pool of water or liquid; mud; pool of foul stagnant water; dirty; pollute; roll about in the mud
Qualify: become fit; show that you are able; meet the minimum standards; restrict; attribute a quality or characteristic
Swore: past of swear; solemnly promise; curse; use obscene language; testify under oath (Law); bind by an oath
Tact: ability to say the right thing; diplomacy; ability to skillfully deal with people; sense of what is proper or appropriate
Unaccustomed: unfamiliar; not accustomed to; unusual; not used to something
Upbringing: rearing of children; the treatment and instruction received from one's parents throughout childhood
Vacant: empty; unfilled; unoccupied; not in use; lacking expression; not claimed
Widow: woman whose husband has died; take away something valuable





Lesson two

Adventure: escapade; exciting experience; risky undertaking; put oneself at risk; take a risk in the hope of a favorable outcome
Blanket: cover; coat; a large piece of woolen material used as a covering for warmth as on a bed
Castle: large building typically of the medieval period; chateau; palace; turret; tower
Cemetery: place where dead people are buried; a tract of land used for burials
Cheat: deceive; swindle; betray; be disloyal; break rules; obtain answers or information in a dishonest way
Coffin: a long; narrow box in which a dead body is buried or cremated.
Conceal: hide; cover; keep secret
Corpse: a dead body; especially of a human
Deadened: diminish; alleviate; anesthetize; numb; make less lively; become dead
Dismal: dark; gloomy; cheerless; depressing; sad
Fled: past and past participle offlee; escape; run away; move swiftly; hurry
Frigid: very cold; frozen; sexually unresponsive
Grave: place where a person or thing is buried; severe; serious; critical; somber; sober
Inhabit: occupy; live in; dwell in; reside in; populate; be present in; be inside of
Janitor: custodian; maintenance man; gatekeeper; doorman; warden; cleaner; maintenance man
Latitude: angular distance on a meridian north or south of the equator; an imaginary great circle on the surface of the earth
Legal: of or pertaining to the law; allowed by law; established by law; according to law
Longitude: angular distance measured east or west from the prime meridian; an imaginary great circle on the surface of the earth
Maid: servant; cleaning lady; young girl; unmarried woman; virgin
Numb: without the power of feeling; deadened; lacking sensitivity; in shock; senseless
Peril: danger; risk; hazard; a situation of serious and immediate danger
Recline: lie in a horizontal position; lie back; lie down and rest; stretch out; lean back
Revenge: action taken in return for an injury or offense; take vengeance; avenge; retaliate; requite
Shack: small crude shelter used as a dwelling; a roughly built hut or cabin; live together without being legally married
Shriek: scream; loud shrill cry; screech
Sinister: evil; wicked; dishonest; frightening; malicious; threatening; ominous; portending evil; on the left side;
Slight: small; light; lacking substance; unimportant; treat with indifference; pay no attention to; disrespect
Slum: poor neighborhood; densely populated poverty-stricken area of a city
Stuck: past participle ofstick; fixed in place; caught; puzzled; jab or poke with a pointed object; fasten; put in a particular place
Teller: a person who deals with customers' transactions in a bank; cashier; vote counter
Tempt: try to get someone to do something; test; invite; entice; tantalize; seduce
Wage: salary; payment; earnings; a fixed regular payment for work typically paid on a daily or weekly basis
Wager: bet; gamble the act of gambling; stake on the outcome of an issue
Wicked: evil; bad mischievous; vicious; malicious; severe; unjustified; dangerous; unpleasant; vile







Lesson three

Annual: occurring once a year; something that appears
Anoint: rub oil on a person's head or feet as part of a religious ceremony; smear with a liquid
Appeal: plead; request; petition for a new trial or judgment; earnest or urgent request
Barely: hardly; scarcely; by a small margin
Blend: mixture; combination; mix together thoroughly
Breezes: light wind; quarrel; feud; any undertaking that is easy to do; a gentle wind
Contrary: contradictory; opposed; stubborn; obstinate; in opposition; against; counter
Costume: clothing; outfit; dress of a distinctive style or period; style of dress; woman's outfit
Devise: think out; plan; invent; bequeath property through a will
Dined: eat dinner; give a dinner for; have supper; dinner party
Dispute: argue; debate; appeal; contest; oppose; fight against; disagreement; argument
Essential: necessary; very important; needed; fundamental; impossible to live without
Excessive: immoderate; exceeding normal bounds; extreme; more than is necessary
Exorbitant: excessive; extreme; disproportionate; expensive; greatly exceeding bounds of reason or moderation
Expensive: costly; high priced; precious
Grant: award; gift; present; contribution; donation; agree; donate; agree to give or allow
Immoderate: excessive; extreme; exaggerated; not moderate; not within reasonable limits
Labor: strenuous physical or mental work;; job or work that must be accomplished; work-force; worker
Legislative: having the authority to make or enact laws; having the power to make laws; relating to laws or a legislature
Minimum: least possible amount; smallest possible size; lowest degree
Persuade: convince; induce; cause to do something through reasoning or argument; win over to do or believe; make willing
Precious: expensive; valuable; priceless; beloved; dear; affectedly delicate; overly refined
Quarrel: fight; an angry dispute; argue; struggle; squabble; conflict; complain; find fault
Retail: pertaining to the sale of goods to final consumers; of the sale of merchandise to end users
Roam: travel about aimlessly; wander; drift; rove; move about aimlessly or without any destination
Scarce: hard to get; rare; not abundant; in short supply
Shade: cast a shadow upon; dim; darken; screen; hide from view; protect from light; cover with a shade change gradually
Shortening: add butter or other fat; act of making shorter; act of cutting; abbreviation; solid fat used in baking
Slaughter: butcher an animal; murder a person; indiscriminately kill a large number of people or animals; kill (animals) for food
Strike: temporary work stoppage; hit; blow; knocking down of all pins at one time (Bowling); failure to hit a ball (Baseball)
Talent: natural ability; innate ability or skill; capacity for achievement; talented person
Typical: usual; of a kind; characteristic; representative; conforming to the expected; standard; classic
Visible: able to be seen; can be clearly seen; in view; observable; obvious; apparent
Wholesale: on a large scale; in large quantities; at a wholesale price; less than retail in price



Lesson four

Aggravate: make worse; exacerbate; annoy
Beau: a man who is the lover of a girl or young woman; lover; young man courting a woman; suitor
Cellar: basement; underground room; wine cellar; a storage space or room below ground level in a house
Circulate: go around; go from place to place or person to person; move around; distribute; pass around; hand out
Complain: find fault; express displeasure; express dissatisfaction or annoyance
Convincing: persuasion; influencing; swaying; cause to believe firmly in the truth of something
Country: rural; located away from urban areas; state; region; inhabitants of a particular nation; one's homeland
Crab: any of a number of crustaceans having five pairs of walking legs; grouch; bad-tempered person
Crumble: fall to pieces; shatter; collapse; break into small crumbs; fall apart
Dense: closely packed together; thick; compact; close; stupid; slow
Descend: go or come down from a higher place to a lower level; go down; lower oneself morally
Eliminate: remove; get rid of; omit; terminate or take out
Enormous: extremely large; immense; huge; extraordinarily large in size or extent or amount or power or degree
Extravagant: lacking restraint in spending money or using resources; unrestrained in especially feelings; lavish; costly; excessive
Folk: people; people who share a common background or way of life; cultural or ethnic group
Fortify: garrison; defend; strengthen; reinforce; enrich; make strong or stronger
Gossip: talk about the private affairs of others; spread rumors; light informal conversation for social occasions
Hoop: encircle; surround; make a basket;a rigid circular band
Humid: moist; damp; marked by a relatively high level of water vapour in the atmosphere
Mist: fog; haze; veil of tears; blurry vision; a cloud of tiny water droplets in the atmosphere at or near the earth's surface
Perceive: feel; sense; be aware of; distinguish; discern; see; behold; become conscious of
Predict: tell beforehand; prophesy; foretell; announce in advance
Schemer: planner; deviser; one who plots; a planner who draws up a personal scheme of action
Scissors: a cutting tool consisting of two blades which slide against one another and cut material placed between them
Sleet: partly frozen rain; mixture of snow and rain; rain containing some ice; or snow melting as it falls
Swamp: an area of waterlogged ground; flood; fill or cover with water; inundate; overwhelm
Sword: weapon consisting of a long straight or curved blade fixed to a hilt; a cutting or thrusting weapon with a long blade
Theory: explanation based on thought observation or reasoning; coherent group of general assumptions; speculation; hypothesis
Utilize: make use of; make practical and effective use of; employ
Vacate: give up; leave; and leave behind empty
Vanish: disappear; disappear suddenly; cease to exist; pass away rapidly
Vapor: moisture in the air that can be seen; fog; steam; mist
Villain: a very wicked person; a wicked person or a person guilty of a crime
Weed: a wild plant growing where it is not wanted and in competition with cultivated plants; tobacco; cigarettes



Lesson five

Altitude: height; distance above sea level
Assemble: gather together; bring together; put together; get together; make by putting pieces together
Batter: a ballplayer who is batting in baseball; strike; beat; hit repeatedly
Beard: the hair growing on the lower part of a man's faces; defy; oppose
Bring out: express; present; display; publicize; advertise; make visible; direct attention to
Burden: what is carried; a load; weigh down; weight to be borne or conveyed; an onerous or difficult concern
Bureau: an administrative unit of government; writing desk; dresser; office
Campus: grounds of a collage university or school; a field on which the buildings of a university are situated
Career: the particular occupation for which you are trained; profession; the general progression of your working life
Casual: without or seeming to be without plan or method; random; accidental; superficial; temporary; informal
Debate: a discussion in which reasons for and against something are brought out; argue; discuss; consider
Documentary: a film or TV program presenting the facts about a person or event; relating to or derived from documents
Dragnet: net which is dragged in fishing or hunting; method by which someone or something is found or caught
Droplet: a tiny drop; a very small drop of a liquid
Evade: get away from by trickery or cleverness; avoid; run away; avoid or try to avoid fulfilling answering or performing
Evaporate: turn into vapor; become vapor; release moisture; disappear; vanish; turn from liquid into vapor
Explore: go over carefully; look into closely; examine; travel to unknown regions; investigate; research
Funky: fearful; panicky; terrified; cool; fashionable; unconventionally modern and stylish
Hand down: passed on as by inheritance; passed on from one person to another; transfer; without effort
Innocent: free from evil or guilt; not guilty; free from sin or wrongdoing; simple; naive; unsophisticated; harmless
Majority: the larger number; greater part; more than half; the age when a person is legally a full adult
Pretending: the act of giving a false appearance; make believe with the intent to deceive; act in a role
Probe: search into; examine thoroughly; investigate; a flexible slender surgical instrument used to explore body cavities
Reform: make better; improve by removing faults; a change for the better as a result of correcting abuses
Riot: a public act of violence by an unruly mob; a violent disturbance of the peace by a crowd
Rioter: one who takes part in a riot; troublemaker who participates in a violent disturbance of the peace
Rural: in the country; characteristic of a small town; rustic; living in or characteristic of farming or country life
Shape up: develop in a positive way; change; be shaped; develop; get organized; behave in a more respectable manner
Take on: accept responsibility; occupy; cause to work; deal with; admit into a group or community; accept as a challenge
Topic: subject that people think write or talk about; some situation or event that is thought about
Tradition: beliefs; opinions; customs handed down from one generation to another; an inherited pattern of thought or action
Wand: a baton used by a magician or water diviner; a long thin stick or rod especially one held as a symbol of office
Witch: a female sorcerer or magician; an ugly evil-looking old woman
Wizard: someone who is dazzlingly skilled in any field; one who practices magic or sorcery; genius; magician





Lesson six

Accuse: one who has been charged with a crime; one who has been blamed
Affair: a vaguely specified concern; a usually secretive or illicit sexual relationship; matter; deal, concern
Appliance: a device that is very useful for a particular job; tool, gadget; device; apparatus
Approach: come near or nearer to in distance, time, or standard; appeal to; turn to
Basement: cellar, story of a building which is underground; a room or floor which is partly or entirely below ground level
Bracelet: piece of jewelry worn around the wrist; an ornamental band or chain worn on the wrist or arm
Brake: devices which allow one to slow or stop a vehicle
Chill: coldness due to a cold environment; depress or discourage; cool; cold
Client: a person who seeks the advice of a lawyer; customer; buyer
Comprehensive: including much; covering completely; including all or everything; having a thorough understanding of a subject
Convict: prove someone guilty of a crime; convince someone of error or wrongdoing; prisoner
County: a region created by territorial division for the purpose of local government; district, division of land
Deceive: make someone believe as true something that is false; mislead; be dishonest with; cheat
Defect: fault; that which is wrong; imperfection; deficiency; weakness; limitation
Defraud: take money, rights and etc by cheating; cheat; rob; deceive
Deprive: take away possessions from someone; keep from having, keeping, or obtaining; prevent from having, deny
Detect: find out; discern; discover
Dull: boring; not sharp; gloomy; stupid; not intelligent; not shiny; deaden; lacking interest or excitement
Employee: a person who works for pay; a worker who is hired to perform a job
Expel: force to leave or move out; exile, eject; drive out; banish; remove from a position or office
Jail: prison, location where convicted criminals and people awaiting trial are confined
Livelihood: the financial means whereby one lives; means of supporting oneself; maintenance; sustenance; occupation
Mayor: elected official acting as executive head of a town or city; the head of a city government
Neglect: give too little care or attention to; disregard; be negligent; forget to perform (a duty; fail to care for, abandon
Pilgrim: Christian who has traveled to a sacred place; one who makes a journey for religious reasons
Poll: an inquiry into public opinion conducted by interviewing a random sample of people; get the opinion; receive votes
Popular: liked by most people; of the general population; well-liked; admired; approved; accepted; common
Praise: an expression of approval and commendation; express admiration; express approval of
Sarcasm: witty language used to convey insults or scorn; satire; irony
Spine: spinal column of a vertebrate; backbone; a series of vertebrae extending from the skull to the small of the back
Steering: act of causing a vehicle to move in a particular direction; the act of guiding or showing the way; drive
Superstition: belief that is not based on fact; an irrational belief arising from ignorance or fear
Thorough: being all that is needed; comprehensive; complete; finished
Undoubtedly: certainly; unquestionably; beyond doubt





Lesson seven

Attic: section of a house below the roof; low wall at the top of a classical building which hides the roof
Attorney: a professional person authorized to practice law; a lawyer appointed to act for another in legal matters
Capsule: a small case or covering; a small container; pill containing medicine
Condemn: express strong disapproval of; declare or judge unfit; denounce; convict, declare guilty
Conqueror: someone who is victorious by force of arms; victor, one who defeats
Consent: agree; give permission or approval; permission to do something; give an affirmative reply to
Constitution: law determining the fundamental political principles of a government; law, rule; set of governing principles
Crew: group of people working together on an air or watercraft; team of people working together; social unit
Denounce: condemn in public; express strong disapproval; speak out against; censure; accuse
Dim: become or make darker; lacking clarity or distinctness; not shining brightly or clearly
Due: that which is deserved or owed; payable; right; fitting, suitable; adequate; should arrive at a specific time
Entitle: give the right to; give a title to
Gang: an association of criminals; band, group of people who associate for social or criminal purposes
Gloomy: dark; dim; in low spirits; characterized by hopelessness; sad; depressing; depressing in character or appearance
Hall of fame: building which houses plaques and statues honoring famous people
Inspection: a formal or official examination; act of looking over carefully and critically; review
Lifeguard: expert swimmer employed to watch over other swimmers and rescue anyone in danger of drowning
Massive: big and heavy; large and solid; bulky; enormous
Molest: interfere with and trouble; disturb; bother, annoy, sexually harass
Outfielder: player in the outfield; player in the outermost field (Sports, Baseball)
Postpone: put off to a later time; delay; arrange for something to take place at a time later than that first scheduled
Preserve: keep from harm or change; keep safe; protect; a domain that seems to be specially reserved for someone
Resent: feel injured and angered at something; have a feeling of ill will, be displeased or bitter
Scratch: scrape, rub; make a small cut or laceration; score or mark with a sharp or pointed object
Stream: a natural body of running water flowing on or under the earth; flow; pour out from; flow freely; blow, wave
Torrent: any violent; rushing stream; flood; a heavy rain; a strong and fast-moving stream of water or other liquid
Unforeseen: not known beforehand; unexpected; not foreseen; unanticipated,
Unique: having no like or equal; being the only one of its kind; singular, matchless, unequaled, rare
Violent: acting with or resulting from great force or emotional intensity; using unwarranted injurious force; strong; forceful
Wreck: something or someone that has suffered ruin or dilapidation; an accident that destroys a ship at sea; ruin; destroy








Lesson eight

Amateur: a person who does something for pleasure not for money or as a profession; not professional, novice
Apparent: obvious; readily perceived or understood; seeming real or true
Bulky: large, taking up much space; massive; of large size for its weight; clumsy
Clue: something which helps to solve a problem; hint; a fact or piece of evidence used to solve a crime or that serves to reveal
Dye: a usually soluble substance for staining or coloring e.g. fabrics or hair; coloring; pigment, tint
Elate: put in high spirits, make proud, make happy; fill with high spirits; fill with optimism; beautify
Exaggerate: overstate, make something seem greater or more important than it really is; make larger than normal
Featured: characterize; depict; describe; having features as specified; given prominence
Foreman: a person who exercises control over workers; man who is in charge of a group of people; leader of a jury
Get off: come down or off of; stop bothering; go to sleep; have a sexual encounter; escape a punishment
Haunted: obsessed or terrified in a strange manner; visited or populated as if by ghosts; a frequently visited place
Inference: a conclusion reached on the basis of evidence and reasoning; act of deriving; drawing of a conclusion
Lumberjack: a person who fells trees; logger; one who cuts down and prepares trees for sale
Mediocre: neither good nor bad; average; ordinary; of medium quality; regular; low-grade; poor
Neat: clean or orderly; in good order; tidy or carefully arranged; not messy
Obvious: easily seen or understood; clear to the eye or mind; not to be doubted; plain; clear; unmistakable; apparent; evident
Ponderous: heavy; weighty; boring; slow and clumsy because of great weight; dull
Prominent: well-known; important; having a quality that thrusts itself into attention; noticeable; famous
Put out: move to or place in a particular position; bring into a particular state or condition; annoy; remove; send out
Reluctant: unwilling; unwillingness to do something contrary to your custom; hesitant
Ridiculous: absurd; completely devoid of wisdom or good sense; broadly or extravagantly humorous
Security: freedom from danger, care, or fear; feeling or condition of being safe; safety; protection; defense; guarantee; stock
Skim: glance through quickly; noting only the important points; a thin layer of a substance on the surface of a liquid.
Squad: small military unit; small group of people trained to work together as a team; a cooperative unit
Sublime: wonderful; splendid; inspiring wonder or awe; of such excellence or beauty as to inspire great admiration or awe
Survive: live longer than; remain alive after; continue to live; endure or last; continue to live after another has died; outlive;
Valid: supported by facts or authority; sound; true; well grounded in logic or truth or having legal force; logical, well-founded
Variety: lack of sameness; a number of different things; the quality or state of being different or diverse
Violet: purple color; any of numerous low-growing small-flowered violas; of a color midway between red and blue
Weird: mysterious, unearthly; strange; odd; queer; supernatural; concerned with fate or destiny





Lesson nine

Banish: expel from a community or group; ban from a place of residence, as for punishment; send away; dismiss
Boredom: the feeling of being bored by something tedious; the state of feeling bored
Century: period of one hundred years; 100 years
Challenge: call to a fight; a demanding or stimulating situation; invite to engage in a contest; test one's ability
Conclude: end; finish; decide; deduce; decide by reasoning; reach a conclusion after a discussion or deliberation
Decree: an official order that has the force of law; order by law
District: region; area; a region marked off for administrative or other purposes
Document: something handwritten or printed that gives information or proof of some fact; record in detail; record for evidence
Enthusiasm: a feeling of excitement; great interest; intense enjoyment; eagerness
Fin: organ attached to various parts of a fish's body for steering; five-dollar bill (Slang)
Grand: large; magnificent; splendid; wonderful; chief, main; one thousand dollars (Slang)
Ignore: pay no attention; disregard; overlook; refuse to recognize; reject; refuse to acknowledge
Lack: be entirely without something; have not enough; the state of needing something that is absent or unavailable; be missing
Metropolitan: of or pertaining to a capital city, characteristic of a important city; sophisticated; a person who lives in a main city
Miniature: represented in a small scale; reduced in size; tiny; of a much smaller size than normal
Onlooker: someone who looks on; observer; spectator; one who watches from the side
Poke fun: subject to laughter or ridicule; make fun
Poodle: an intelligent dog with a heavy curly solid-colored coat that is usually clipped
Rage: violent anger; something that arouses

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